Velocity

Hi Soren,

We have our model very advanced but in the simulates we have a
velocity problem.
We can not simulate real movement velocity, there is an error in the
kinematic analysis.
With slow movements there are not problems but when we add velocity
in the movement it appear the errors.
We import the movement with an animation software (Poser) and the
simulation hat a minute.

The AnyBody message is:

Kinematic Analysis (Operation: Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
0) Design variables have been updated.

  1. Load time positions have been re-established.
    Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin. error = 4.222751E-

Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001, error = 0.000004. -
constr. #4
in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
\ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
(90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in time step 0

Best regards.

Hi Raul

Have you tried to add more time steps in the analysis when you do
the fast motion?

When you run the kinemtic analysis it uses the previous positions as
part of the guess on the next position. Therefore it might help to
increase the number of time steps.

Can you see if the error happens for a certain joint angle of the
elbow? it seems to be the elbow which cause the problem from your
error message.

Best regards
AnyBody Support

— In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
<raulborrazlamiel@…> wrote:
>
> Hi Soren,
>
> We have our model very advanced but in the simulates we have a
> velocity problem.
> We can not simulate real movement velocity, there is an error in
the
> kinematic analysis.
> With slow movements there are not problems but when we add
velocity
> in the movement it appear the errors.
> We import the movement with an animation software (Poser) and the
> simulation hat a minute.
>
> The AnyBody message is:
>
> Kinematic Analysis (Operation: Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> 0) Design variables have been updated.
> 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin. error =
4.222751E-
> 006)
> Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001, error =
0.000004. -
> constr. #4
> in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> (90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in time step 0
>
> Best regards.
>

Hi Soren,

We send you a film with the movement.
We have a film with 58 frames with a velocity of 25 frames per
second. We import to AnyBody this movement and we modify the number
of frames (4*58) to reduce the velocity. Have we got any limit with
the number of frames? Because when we made a long simulation (near
one minute) if we multiply the number of frames for 6 or 8 then it
appears an loading error.

Thanks.

— In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@…>
wrote:
>
> Hi Raul
>
> Have you tried to add more time steps in the analysis when you do
> the fast motion?
>
> When you run the kinemtic analysis it uses the previous positions
as
> part of the guess on the next position. Therefore it might help to
> increase the number of time steps.
>
> Can you see if the error happens for a certain joint angle of the
> elbow? it seems to be the elbow which cause the problem from your
> error message.
>
> Best regards
> AnyBody Support
>
>
> — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> >
> > Hi Soren,
> >
> > We have our model very advanced but in the simulates we have a
> > velocity problem.
> > We can not simulate real movement velocity, there is an error in
> the
> > kinematic analysis.
> > With slow movements there are not problems but when we add
> velocity
> > in the movement it appear the errors.
> > We import the movement with an animation software (Poser) and
the
> > simulation hat a minute.
> >
> > The AnyBody message is:
> >
> > Kinematic Analysis (Operation: Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> > 0) Design variables have been updated.
> > 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> > Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin. error =
> 4.222751E-
> > 006)
> > Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001, error =
> 0.000004. -
> > constr. #4
> > in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> > ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> > (90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in time step 0
> >
> > Best regards.
> >
>

Hi Raul

How many timesteps do you have in the anlysis when the loading fails?

There should be no boundary on the size of the vectors in the
interpolation drivers (i guess this is how you input the frames to
the model), but if they become to big it slows down the load time.

What kind of error message do you get?

Best regards
AnyBody Support

— In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
<raulborrazlamiel@…> wrote:
>
> Hi Soren,
>
> We send you a film with the movement.
> We have a film with 58 frames with a velocity of 25 frames per
> second. We import to AnyBody this movement and we modify the
number
> of frames (4*58) to reduce the velocity. Have we got any limit
with
> the number of frames? Because when we made a long simulation (near
> one minute) if we multiply the number of frames for 6 or 8 then it
> appears an loading error.
>
> Thanks.
>
>
> — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> wrote:
> >
> > Hi Raul
> >
> > Have you tried to add more time steps in the analysis when you
do
> > the fast motion?
> >
> > When you run the kinemtic analysis it uses the previous
positions
> as
> > part of the guess on the next position. Therefore it might help
to
> > increase the number of time steps.
> >
> > Can you see if the error happens for a certain joint angle of
the
> > elbow? it seems to be the elbow which cause the problem from
your
> > error message.
> >
> > Best regards
> > AnyBody Support
> >
> >
> > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > >
> > > Hi Soren,
> > >
> > > We have our model very advanced but in the simulates we have a
> > > velocity problem.
> > > We can not simulate real movement velocity, there is an error
in
> > the
> > > kinematic analysis.
> > > With slow movements there are not problems but when we add
> > velocity
> > > in the movement it appear the errors.
> > > We import the movement with an animation software (Poser) and
> the
> > > simulation hat a minute.
> > >
> > > The AnyBody message is:
> > >
> > > Kinematic Analysis (Operation: Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> > > 0) Design variables have been updated.
> > > 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> > > Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin. error =
> > 4.222751E-
> > > 006)
> > > Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001, error =
> > 0.000004. -
> > > constr. #4
> > > in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> > > ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > >
\ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> > > (90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in time step 0
> > >
> > > Best regards.
> > >
> >
>

Hi Soren,

Sorry for my later answer but I had a travel yesterday.
The loading error is:

Loading Main : “D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
\ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any”
Scanning…
Parsing…
Constructing model tree…
Linking identifiers…
Evaluating constants…
Configuring model…
Evaluating model…

Deleting last loaded model…Done.
ERROR : Model load : unknown error

We have a simulate with 1501 frames and in AnyBody we have:
TimeSerie = …/1500
nStep = 12008
tEnd = 60.04

Best regards.

— In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@…>
wrote:
>
> Hi Raul
>
> How many timesteps do you have in the anlysis when the loading
fails?
>
> There should be no boundary on the size of the vectors in the
> interpolation drivers (i guess this is how you input the frames to
> the model), but if they become to big it slows down the load time.
>
> What kind of error message do you get?
>
> Best regards
> AnyBody Support
>
> — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> >
> > Hi Soren,
> >
> > We send you a film with the movement.
> > We have a film with 58 frames with a velocity of 25 frames per
> > second. We import to AnyBody this movement and we modify the
> number
> > of frames (4*58) to reduce the velocity. Have we got any limit
> with
> > the number of frames? Because when we made a long simulation
(near
> > one minute) if we multiply the number of frames for 6 or 8 then
it
> > appears an loading error.
> >
> > Thanks.
> >
> >
> > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> > wrote:
> > >
> > > Hi Raul
> > >
> > > Have you tried to add more time steps in the analysis when you
> do
> > > the fast motion?
> > >
> > > When you run the kinemtic analysis it uses the previous
> positions
> > as
> > > part of the guess on the next position. Therefore it might
help
> to
> > > increase the number of time steps.
> > >
> > > Can you see if the error happens for a certain joint angle of
> the
> > > elbow? it seems to be the elbow which cause the problem from
> your
> > > error message.
> > >
> > > Best regards
> > > AnyBody Support
> > >
> > >
> > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > >
> > > > Hi Soren,
> > > >
> > > > We have our model very advanced but in the simulates we have
a
> > > > velocity problem.
> > > > We can not simulate real movement velocity, there is an
error
> in
> > > the
> > > > kinematic analysis.
> > > > With slow movements there are not problems but when we add
> > > velocity
> > > > in the movement it appear the errors.
> > > > We import the movement with an animation software (Poser)
and
> > the
> > > > simulation hat a minute.
> > > >
> > > > The AnyBody message is:
> > > >
> > > > Kinematic Analysis (Operation:
Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> > > > 0) Design variables have been updated.
> > > > 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> > > > Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin. error =
> > > 4.222751E-
> > > > 006)
> > > > Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001, error =
> > > 0.000004. -
> > > > constr. #4
> > > >
in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> > > > ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > > >
> \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> > > > (90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in time step
0
> > > >
> > > > Best regards.
> > > >
> > >
> >
>

Hi Raul

There is no hard boundaries on the number of timesteps in the
analysis and number of frames you can use in the interpoaltion
functions.

I think the load error you get could be a memory issue. I have never
tried with so many timesteps. 12008 timestpes, is really alot, and
when your tEnd is 60 sec., i do not see why you should analyse about
200 timesteps for each second. I think a resonable number would be
100 steps?, but maybe you have some reasons for this high number
that i do not know about.

Best regards
AnyBody Support

— In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
<raulborrazlamiel@…> wrote:
>
> Hi Soren,
>
> Sorry for my later answer but I had a travel yesterday.
> The loading error is:
>
> Loading Main : “D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any”
> Scanning…
> Parsing…
> Constructing model tree…
> Linking identifiers…
> Evaluating constants…
> Configuring model…
> Evaluating model…
>
> Deleting last loaded model…Done.
> ERROR : Model load : unknown error
>
> We have a simulate with 1501 frames and in AnyBody we have:
> TimeSerie = …/1500
> nStep = 12008
> tEnd = 60.04
>
> Best regards.
>
>
> — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> wrote:
> >
> > Hi Raul
> >
> > How many timesteps do you have in the anlysis when the loading
> fails?
> >
> > There should be no boundary on the size of the vectors in the
> > interpolation drivers (i guess this is how you input the frames
to
> > the model), but if they become to big it slows down the load
time.
> >
> > What kind of error message do you get?
> >
> > Best regards
> > AnyBody Support
> >
> > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > >
> > > Hi Soren,
> > >
> > > We send you a film with the movement.
> > > We have a film with 58 frames with a velocity of 25 frames per
> > > second. We import to AnyBody this movement and we modify the
> > number
> > > of frames (4*58) to reduce the velocity. Have we got any limit
> > with
> > > the number of frames? Because when we made a long simulation
> (near
> > > one minute) if we multiply the number of frames for 6 or 8
then
> it
> > > appears an loading error.
> > >
> > > Thanks.
> > >
> > >
> > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> > > wrote:
> > > >
> > > > Hi Raul
> > > >
> > > > Have you tried to add more time steps in the analysis when
you
> > do
> > > > the fast motion?
> > > >
> > > > When you run the kinemtic analysis it uses the previous
> > positions
> > > as
> > > > part of the guess on the next position. Therefore it might
> help
> > to
> > > > increase the number of time steps.
> > > >
> > > > Can you see if the error happens for a certain joint angle
of
> > the
> > > > elbow? it seems to be the elbow which cause the problem from
> > your
> > > > error message.
> > > >
> > > > Best regards
> > > > AnyBody Support
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > > >
> > > > > Hi Soren,
> > > > >
> > > > > We have our model very advanced but in the simulates we
have
> a
> > > > > velocity problem.
> > > > > We can not simulate real movement velocity, there is an
> error
> > in
> > > > the
> > > > > kinematic analysis.
> > > > > With slow movements there are not problems but when we add
> > > > velocity
> > > > > in the movement it appear the errors.
> > > > > We import the movement with an animation software (Poser)
> and
> > > the
> > > > > simulation hat a minute.
> > > > >
> > > > > The AnyBody message is:
> > > > >
> > > > > Kinematic Analysis (Operation:
> Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> > > > > 0) Design variables have been updated.
> > > > > 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> > > > > Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin. error

> > > > 4.222751E-
> > > > > 006)
> > > > > Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001, error =
> > > > 0.000004. -
> > > > > constr. #4
> > > > >
> in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> > > > > ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > > > >
> > \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> > > > > (90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in time
step
> 0
> > > > >
> > > > > Best regards.
> > > > >
> > > >
> > >
> >
>

Hi Soren,

We are confused because our objetiveb is a 60 seconds simulation.
This simulation have 1500 steps but with this number of steps we
have an error in the kinematic analisys.
The solution that we have thought was multiply the nStep to decrease
the interpolation interval.
We think the problem is the movement velocity because when we have
slow simulations, the results are well.
Now we work with small simulations (100 steps) and we have the same
problem in the kinematic analisys.
If you have seen the video that we sent, you can see the real
movement and its velocity.
What do you think about our problem?

We hope you understand all our explications.
Best regards.

— In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@…>
wrote:
>
> Hi Raul
>
> There is no hard boundaries on the number of timesteps in the
> analysis and number of frames you can use in the interpoaltion
> functions.
>
> I think the load error you get could be a memory issue. I have
never
> tried with so many timesteps. 12008 timestpes, is really alot, and
> when your tEnd is 60 sec., i do not see why you should analyse
about
> 200 timesteps for each second. I think a resonable number would be
> 100 steps?, but maybe you have some reasons for this high number
> that i do not know about.
>
>
> Best regards
> AnyBody Support
>
> — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> >
> > Hi Soren,
> >
> > Sorry for my later answer but I had a travel yesterday.
> > The loading error is:
> >
> > Loading Main : “D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any”
> > Scanning…
> > Parsing…
> > Constructing model tree…
> > Linking identifiers…
> > Evaluating constants…
> > Configuring model…
> > Evaluating model…
> >
> > Deleting last loaded model…Done.
> > ERROR : Model load : unknown error
> >
> > We have a simulate with 1501 frames and in AnyBody we have:
> > TimeSerie = …/1500
> > nStep = 12008
> > tEnd = 60.04
> >
> > Best regards.
> >
> >
> > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> > wrote:
> > >
> > > Hi Raul
> > >
> > > How many timesteps do you have in the anlysis when the loading
> > fails?
> > >
> > > There should be no boundary on the size of the vectors in the
> > > interpolation drivers (i guess this is how you input the
frames
> to
> > > the model), but if they become to big it slows down the load
> time.
> > >
> > > What kind of error message do you get?
> > >
> > > Best regards
> > > AnyBody Support
> > >
> > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > >
> > > > Hi Soren,
> > > >
> > > > We send you a film with the movement.
> > > > We have a film with 58 frames with a velocity of 25 frames
per
> > > > second. We import to AnyBody this movement and we modify the
> > > number
> > > > of frames (4*58) to reduce the velocity. Have we got any
limit
> > > with
> > > > the number of frames? Because when we made a long simulation
> > (near
> > > > one minute) if we multiply the number of frames for 6 or 8
> then
> > it
> > > > appears an loading error.
> > > >
> > > > Thanks.
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support”
<support@>
> > > > wrote:
> > > > >
> > > > > Hi Raul
> > > > >
> > > > > Have you tried to add more time steps in the analysis when
> you
> > > do
> > > > > the fast motion?
> > > > >
> > > > > When you run the kinemtic analysis it uses the previous
> > > positions
> > > > as
> > > > > part of the guess on the next position. Therefore it might
> > help
> > > to
> > > > > increase the number of time steps.
> > > > >
> > > > > Can you see if the error happens for a certain joint angle
> of
> > > the
> > > > > elbow? it seems to be the elbow which cause the problem
from
> > > your
> > > > > error message.
> > > > >
> > > > > Best regards
> > > > > AnyBody Support
> > > > >
> > > > >
> > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Hi Soren,
> > > > > >
> > > > > > We have our model very advanced but in the simulates we
> have
> > a
> > > > > > velocity problem.
> > > > > > We can not simulate real movement velocity, there is an
> > error
> > > in
> > > > > the
> > > > > > kinematic analysis.
> > > > > > With slow movements there are not problems but when we
add
> > > > > velocity
> > > > > > in the movement it appear the errors.
> > > > > > We import the movement with an animation software
(Poser)
> > and
> > > > the
> > > > > > simulation hat a minute.
> > > > > >
> > > > > > The AnyBody message is:
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Kinematic Analysis (Operation:
> > Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> > > > > > 0) Design variables have been updated.
> > > > > > 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> > > > > > Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin.
error
> =
> > > > > 4.222751E-
> > > > > > 006)
> > > > > > Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001, error

> > > > > 0.000004. -
> > > > > > constr. #4
> > > > > >
> > in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> > > > > > ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > > > > >
> > >
\ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> > > > > > (90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in time
> step
> > 0
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Best regards.
> > > > > >
> > > > >
> > > >
> > >
> >
>

Hi Raul

I think 100 timesteps should be more than enough for the emotion
shown on the video.

I think you should also try to reduce the number of frames you use
in the interpolation, although i can not see why it should be a
problem to have 1500 frames. Have you checked the accelerations of
the segments? If you use 1500 frames for 60 sec. and there is noise
on the input data it could lead to undesired accelerations,
downsampling the numbers of frames may solve this.

What does the kinematic error say?

Best regards
AnyBody Support

— In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
<raulborrazlamiel@…> wrote:
>
> Hi Soren,
>
> We are confused because our objetiveb is a 60 seconds simulation.
> This simulation have 1500 steps but with this number of steps we
> have an error in the kinematic analisys.
> The solution that we have thought was multiply the nStep to
decrease
> the interpolation interval.
> We think the problem is the movement velocity because when we have
> slow simulations, the results are well.
> Now we work with small simulations (100 steps) and we have the
same
> problem in the kinematic analisys.
> If you have seen the video that we sent, you can see the real
> movement and its velocity.
> What do you think about our problem?
>
> We hope you understand all our explications.
> Best regards.
>
>
> — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> wrote:
> >
> > Hi Raul
> >
> > There is no hard boundaries on the number of timesteps in the
> > analysis and number of frames you can use in the interpoaltion
> > functions.
> >
> > I think the load error you get could be a memory issue. I have
> never
> > tried with so many timesteps. 12008 timestpes, is really alot,
and
> > when your tEnd is 60 sec., i do not see why you should analyse
> about
> > 200 timesteps for each second. I think a resonable number would
be
> > 100 steps?, but maybe you have some reasons for this high number
> > that i do not know about.
> >
> >
> > Best regards
> > AnyBody Support
> >
> > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > >
> > > Hi Soren,
> > >
> > > Sorry for my later answer but I had a travel yesterday.
> > > The loading error is:
> > >
> > > Loading Main : “D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > >
\ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any”
> > > Scanning…
> > > Parsing…
> > > Constructing model tree…
> > > Linking identifiers…
> > > Evaluating constants…
> > > Configuring model…
> > > Evaluating model…
> > >
> > > Deleting last loaded model…Done.
> > > ERROR : Model load : unknown error
> > >
> > > We have a simulate with 1501 frames and in AnyBody we have:
> > > TimeSerie = …/1500
> > > nStep = 12008
> > > tEnd = 60.04
> > >
> > > Best regards.
> > >
> > >
> > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> > > wrote:
> > > >
> > > > Hi Raul
> > > >
> > > > How many timesteps do you have in the anlysis when the
loading
> > > fails?
> > > >
> > > > There should be no boundary on the size of the vectors in
the
> > > > interpolation drivers (i guess this is how you input the
> frames
> > to
> > > > the model), but if they become to big it slows down the load
> > time.
> > > >
> > > > What kind of error message do you get?
> > > >
> > > > Best regards
> > > > AnyBody Support
> > > >
> > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > > >
> > > > > Hi Soren,
> > > > >
> > > > > We send you a film with the movement.
> > > > > We have a film with 58 frames with a velocity of 25 frames
> per
> > > > > second. We import to AnyBody this movement and we modify
the
> > > > number
> > > > > of frames (4*58) to reduce the velocity. Have we got any
> limit
> > > > with
> > > > > the number of frames? Because when we made a long
simulation
> > > (near
> > > > > one minute) if we multiply the number of frames for 6 or 8
> > then
> > > it
> > > > > appears an loading error.
> > > > >
> > > > > Thanks.
> > > > >
> > > > >
> > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support”
> <support@>
> > > > > wrote:
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Hi Raul
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Have you tried to add more time steps in the analysis
when
> > you
> > > > do
> > > > > > the fast motion?
> > > > > >
> > > > > > When you run the kinemtic analysis it uses the previous
> > > > positions
> > > > > as
> > > > > > part of the guess on the next position. Therefore it
might
> > > help
> > > > to
> > > > > > increase the number of time steps.
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Can you see if the error happens for a certain joint
angle
> > of
> > > > the
> > > > > > elbow? it seems to be the elbow which cause the problem
> from
> > > > your
> > > > > > error message.
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Best regards
> > > > > > AnyBody Support
> > > > > >
> > > > > >
> > > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > > > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Hi Soren,
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > We have our model very advanced but in the simulates
we
> > have
> > > a
> > > > > > > velocity problem.
> > > > > > > We can not simulate real movement velocity, there is
an
> > > error
> > > > in
> > > > > > the
> > > > > > > kinematic analysis.
> > > > > > > With slow movements there are not problems but when we
> add
> > > > > > velocity
> > > > > > > in the movement it appear the errors.
> > > > > > > We import the movement with an animation software
> (Poser)
> > > and
> > > > > the
> > > > > > > simulation hat a minute.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > The AnyBody message is:
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Kinematic Analysis (Operation:
> > > Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> > > > > > > 0) Design variables have been updated.
> > > > > > > 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> > > > > > > Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin.
> error
> > =
> > > > > > 4.222751E-
> > > > > > > 006)
> > > > > > > Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001,
error
> =
> > > > > > 0.000004. -
> > > > > > > constr. #4
> > > > > > >
> > > in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> > > > > > > ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > > > > > >
> > > >
> \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> > > > > > > (90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in
time
> > step
> > > 0
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Best regards.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > >
> > > > >
> > > >
> > >
> >
>

Hi Soren,

First of all thanks for your help, it is very important for us. We
are mess with this situation, especially we have very confusing with
the parameters: nStep, tEnd and TimeSerie (TimeSerie = is a file).

I explain two cases, one don’t produce errors and another that
produces it. I send you the two videos. Their duration have 10
seconds (250 poses from our MoCap System to 25 fps).

In the first case, the velocity is slow. The TimeSerie is from 0/249
to 249/249. nStep = 10. tEnd would be 10 seconds but we have
observed the following:
If tEnd = 1 then it running all postures
If tEnd = 10 then it running all postures in the first step.
If tEnd = 0.5 then it only running the middle of postures.
This is that we observed in the model view. What it’s wrong?

The second case:
When we increase the velocity the kinematic analysis failed. The
error is the following:

Kinematic Analysis (Operation: Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
0) Design variables have been updated.

  1. Load time positions have been re-established.
    Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin. error =
    3.941300E-006)
    Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001, error = 0.000004. -
    constr. #4
    in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
    ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
    \ARep\Aalborg_LEMUS_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
    (93) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in time step 0

The parameters are the same:
TimeSerie = from 0/249 to 249/249
nStep = 10
tEnd = 10 (with tEnd=1,it also get the same error)

We are very interesting in resolve this problems.
In general, for 60 seconds of movement and 1500 poses:
What values do you recommend us for nStep and tEnd parameters and
for TimeSerie file?

Best regards.

— In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@…>
wrote:
>
> Hi Raul
>
> I think 100 timesteps should be more than enough for the emotion
> shown on the video.
>
> I think you should also try to reduce the number of frames you use
> in the interpolation, although i can not see why it should be a
> problem to have 1500 frames. Have you checked the accelerations of
> the segments? If you use 1500 frames for 60 sec. and there is
noise
> on the input data it could lead to undesired accelerations,
> downsampling the numbers of frames may solve this.
>
> What does the kinematic error say?
>
> Best regards
> AnyBody Support
>
> — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> >
> > Hi Soren,
> >
> > We are confused because our objetiveb is a 60 seconds
simulation.
> > This simulation have 1500 steps but with this number of steps we
> > have an error in the kinematic analisys.
> > The solution that we have thought was multiply the nStep to
> decrease
> > the interpolation interval.
> > We think the problem is the movement velocity because when we
have
> > slow simulations, the results are well.
> > Now we work with small simulations (100 steps) and we have the
> same
> > problem in the kinematic analisys.
> > If you have seen the video that we sent, you can see the real
> > movement and its velocity.
> > What do you think about our problem?
> >
> > We hope you understand all our explications.
> > Best regards.
> >
> >
> > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> > wrote:
> > >
> > > Hi Raul
> > >
> > > There is no hard boundaries on the number of timesteps in the
> > > analysis and number of frames you can use in the interpoaltion
> > > functions.
> > >
> > > I think the load error you get could be a memory issue. I have
> > never
> > > tried with so many timesteps. 12008 timestpes, is really alot,
> and
> > > when your tEnd is 60 sec., i do not see why you should analyse
> > about
> > > 200 timesteps for each second. I think a resonable number
would
> be
> > > 100 steps?, but maybe you have some reasons for this high
number
> > > that i do not know about.
> > >
> > >
> > > Best regards
> > > AnyBody Support
> > >
> > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > >
> > > > Hi Soren,
> > > >
> > > > Sorry for my later answer but I had a travel yesterday.
> > > > The loading error is:
> > > >
> > > > Loading Main : “D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > > >
> \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any”
> > > > Scanning…
> > > > Parsing…
> > > > Constructing model tree…
> > > > Linking identifiers…
> > > > Evaluating constants…
> > > > Configuring model…
> > > > Evaluating model…
> > > >
> > > > Deleting last loaded model…Done.
> > > > ERROR : Model load : unknown error
> > > >
> > > > We have a simulate with 1501 frames and in AnyBody we have:
> > > > TimeSerie = …/1500
> > > > nStep = 12008
> > > > tEnd = 60.04
> > > >
> > > > Best regards.
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support”
<support@>
> > > > wrote:
> > > > >
> > > > > Hi Raul
> > > > >
> > > > > How many timesteps do you have in the anlysis when the
> loading
> > > > fails?
> > > > >
> > > > > There should be no boundary on the size of the vectors in
> the
> > > > > interpolation drivers (i guess this is how you input the
> > frames
> > > to
> > > > > the model), but if they become to big it slows down the
load
> > > time.
> > > > >
> > > > > What kind of error message do you get?
> > > > >
> > > > > Best regards
> > > > > AnyBody Support
> > > > >
> > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Hi Soren,
> > > > > >
> > > > > > We send you a film with the movement.
> > > > > > We have a film with 58 frames with a velocity of 25
frames
> > per
> > > > > > second. We import to AnyBody this movement and we modify
> the
> > > > > number
> > > > > > of frames (4*58) to reduce the velocity. Have we got any
> > limit
> > > > > with
> > > > > > the number of frames? Because when we made a long
> simulation
> > > > (near
> > > > > > one minute) if we multiply the number of frames for 6 or
8
> > > then
> > > > it
> > > > > > appears an loading error.
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Thanks.
> > > > > >
> > > > > >
> > > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support”
> > <support@>
> > > > > > wrote:
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Hi Raul
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Have you tried to add more time steps in the analysis
> when
> > > you
> > > > > do
> > > > > > > the fast motion?
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > When you run the kinemtic analysis it uses the
previous
> > > > > positions
> > > > > > as
> > > > > > > part of the guess on the next position. Therefore it
> might
> > > > help
> > > > > to
> > > > > > > increase the number of time steps.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Can you see if the error happens for a certain joint
> angle
> > > of
> > > > > the
> > > > > > > elbow? it seems to be the elbow which cause the
problem
> > from
> > > > > your
> > > > > > > error message.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Best regards
> > > > > > > AnyBody Support
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > > > > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > Hi Soren,
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > We have our model very advanced but in the simulates
> we
> > > have
> > > > a
> > > > > > > > velocity problem.
> > > > > > > > We can not simulate real movement velocity, there is
> an
> > > > error
> > > > > in
> > > > > > > the
> > > > > > > > kinematic analysis.
> > > > > > > > With slow movements there are not problems but when
we
> > add
> > > > > > > velocity
> > > > > > > > in the movement it appear the errors.
> > > > > > > > We import the movement with an animation software
> > (Poser)
> > > > and
> > > > > > the
> > > > > > > > simulation hat a minute.
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > The AnyBody message is:
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > Kinematic Analysis (Operation:
> > > > Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> > > > > > > > 0) Design variables have been updated.
> > > > > > > > 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> > > > > > > > Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin.
> > error
> > > =
> > > > > > > 4.222751E-
> > > > > > > > 006)
> > > > > > > > Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001,
> error
> > =
> > > > > > > 0.000004. -
> > > > > > > > constr. #4
> > > > > > > >
> > > >
in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> > > > > > > > ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > > > > > > >
> > > > >
> > \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> > > > > > > > (90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in
> time
> > > step
> > > > 0
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > Best regards.
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > >
> > > > > >
> > > > >
> > > >
> > >
> >
>

Hi Raul

I will start by explaining the parameters nStep, tEnd and TimeSerie:

nStep: This is simply the number of analysis steps the you would
like to have. So for example if you have 60 sec as tEnd, and
nStep=120 it will make two analysis for each second. Lest say you
have nStep=50 or 100 then you will have exactly the same results at
step 25 and 50 in the two cases, so nStep is just the choice of
discretization of the time axis.

tEnd: This is the time value at the end of the analysis. You can
also set the tStart value by default it will be zero. So for a
bicycle application where you want to analyse one revolution of the
crank you will set tEnd=60/Cadency where cadency is in RPM.

TimeSerie: This vector is used for the interpolation drivers. The
TimeSerie vector is used for relating the Data vector with the time
of the analysis. So for example if your tEnd is 60 sec, your time
serie end value should also be 60 sec. So for each of your numbers
in the Data vector there is a corresponding value in the TimeVector
which says when the Data is used in time.

Back to your example:
If your TimeSerie is 0/249 … 249/249 your end time is 1 sec.
This is why tEnd=1 works and do all the postures.
Using tEnd=10 will do all the postures in the first step because
your TimeSerie still is 0 to 1 so nothing is going to happen after
the first sec.

If tEnd=0.5 it will only run the half of the postures because
tEnd=0.5 and the timeseries still go to 1 so it is only half way
through the data.

So there is nothing wrong with the way it behaves, it is the input.
If you want to be able to run the same postures with different speed
(tEnd values)i would mlutiplicate the TimeSerie vector (0…1) by
the tEnd value, in this way the TimeSerie will always match the tEnd
value .

In the second case where you increase the velocity, how do you do
this? by lowering tEnd?

I can see from the error message that it is the elbow joint which
causes the problem, which angle should it have in this step? is it
zero?

I think that 1500 poses are too many for 60 seconds movement, but
this depends on how fast the person is moving. I would suggest
nStep=100, 300 poses, TimeSerie=(0…1)*tEnd and tEnd=60 sec.

I hope this helps you move on

Best regards
AnyBody Technology Support

— In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
<raulborrazlamiel@…> wrote:
>
> Hi Soren,
>
> First of all thanks for your help, it is very important for us. We
> are mess with this situation, especially we have very confusing
with
> the parameters: nStep, tEnd and TimeSerie (TimeSerie = is a file).
>
> I explain two cases, one don’t produce errors and another that
> produces it. I send you the two videos. Their duration have 10
> seconds (250 poses from our MoCap System to 25 fps).
>
> In the first case, the velocity is slow. The TimeSerie is from
0/249
> to 249/249. nStep = 10. tEnd would be 10 seconds but we have
> observed the following:
> If tEnd = 1 then it running all postures
> If tEnd = 10 then it running all postures in the first step.
> If tEnd = 0.5 then it only running the middle of postures.
> This is that we observed in the model view. What it’s wrong?
>
> The second case:
> When we increase the velocity the kinematic analysis failed. The
> error is the following:
>
> Kinematic Analysis (Operation: Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> 0) Design variables have been updated.
> 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final kin. error =
> 3.941300E-006)
> Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001, error =
0.000004. -
> constr. #4
> in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> \ARep\Aalborg_LEMUS_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> (93) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in time step 0
>
> The parameters are the same:
> TimeSerie = from 0/249 to 249/249
> nStep = 10
> tEnd = 10 (with tEnd=1,it also get the same error)
>
>
> We are very interesting in resolve this problems.
> In general, for 60 seconds of movement and 1500 poses:
> What values do you recommend us for nStep and tEnd parameters and
> for TimeSerie file?
>
> Best regards.
>
>
> — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> wrote:
> >
> > Hi Raul
> >
> > I think 100 timesteps should be more than enough for the emotion
> > shown on the video.
> >
> > I think you should also try to reduce the number of frames you
use
> > in the interpolation, although i can not see why it should be a
> > problem to have 1500 frames. Have you checked the accelerations
of
> > the segments? If you use 1500 frames for 60 sec. and there is
> noise
> > on the input data it could lead to undesired accelerations,
> > downsampling the numbers of frames may solve this.
> >
> > What does the kinematic error say?
> >
> > Best regards
> > AnyBody Support
> >
> > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > >
> > > Hi Soren,
> > >
> > > We are confused because our objetiveb is a 60 seconds
> simulation.
> > > This simulation have 1500 steps but with this number of steps
we
> > > have an error in the kinematic analisys.
> > > The solution that we have thought was multiply the nStep to
> > decrease
> > > the interpolation interval.
> > > We think the problem is the movement velocity because when we
> have
> > > slow simulations, the results are well.
> > > Now we work with small simulations (100 steps) and we have the
> > same
> > > problem in the kinematic analisys.
> > > If you have seen the video that we sent, you can see the real
> > > movement and its velocity.
> > > What do you think about our problem?
> > >
> > > We hope you understand all our explications.
> > > Best regards.
> > >
> > >
> > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support” <support@>
> > > wrote:
> > > >
> > > > Hi Raul
> > > >
> > > > There is no hard boundaries on the number of timesteps in
the
> > > > analysis and number of frames you can use in the
interpoaltion
> > > > functions.
> > > >
> > > > I think the load error you get could be a memory issue. I
have
> > > never
> > > > tried with so many timesteps. 12008 timestpes, is really
alot,
> > and
> > > > when your tEnd is 60 sec., i do not see why you should
analyse
> > > about
> > > > 200 timesteps for each second. I think a resonable number
> would
> > be
> > > > 100 steps?, but maybe you have some reasons for this high
> number
> > > > that i do not know about.
> > > >
> > > >
> > > > Best regards
> > > > AnyBody Support
> > > >
> > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > > >
> > > > > Hi Soren,
> > > > >
> > > > > Sorry for my later answer but I had a travel yesterday.
> > > > > The loading error is:
> > > > >
> > > > > Loading Main : “D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > > > >
> > \ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any”
> > > > > Scanning…
> > > > > Parsing…
> > > > > Constructing model tree…
> > > > > Linking identifiers…
> > > > > Evaluating constants…
> > > > > Configuring model…
> > > > > Evaluating model…
> > > > >
> > > > > Deleting last loaded model…Done.
> > > > > ERROR : Model load : unknown error
> > > > >
> > > > > We have a simulate with 1501 frames and in AnyBody we have:
> > > > > TimeSerie = …/1500
> > > > > nStep = 12008
> > > > > tEnd = 60.04
> > > > >
> > > > > Best regards.
> > > > >
> > > > >
> > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support”
> <support@>
> > > > > wrote:
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Hi Raul
> > > > > >
> > > > > > How many timesteps do you have in the anlysis when the
> > loading
> > > > > fails?
> > > > > >
> > > > > > There should be no boundary on the size of the vectors
in
> > the
> > > > > > interpolation drivers (i guess this is how you input the
> > > frames
> > > > to
> > > > > > the model), but if they become to big it slows down the
> load
> > > > time.
> > > > > >
> > > > > > What kind of error message do you get?
> > > > > >
> > > > > > Best regards
> > > > > > AnyBody Support
> > > > > >
> > > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > > > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Hi Soren,
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > We send you a film with the movement.
> > > > > > > We have a film with 58 frames with a velocity of 25
> frames
> > > per
> > > > > > > second. We import to AnyBody this movement and we
modify
> > the
> > > > > > number
> > > > > > > of frames (4*58) to reduce the velocity. Have we got
any
> > > limit
> > > > > > with
> > > > > > > the number of frames? Because when we made a long
> > simulation
> > > > > (near
> > > > > > > one minute) if we multiply the number of frames for 6
or
> 8
> > > > then
> > > > > it
> > > > > > > appears an loading error.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > Thanks.
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > >
> > > > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, “AnyBody Support”
> > > <support@>
> > > > > > > wrote:
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > Hi Raul
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > Have you tried to add more time steps in the
analysis
> > when
> > > > you
> > > > > > do
> > > > > > > > the fast motion?
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > When you run the kinemtic analysis it uses the
> previous
> > > > > > positions
> > > > > > > as
> > > > > > > > part of the guess on the next position. Therefore it
> > might
> > > > > help
> > > > > > to
> > > > > > > > increase the number of time steps.
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > Can you see if the error happens for a certain joint
> > angle
> > > > of
> > > > > > the
> > > > > > > > elbow? it seems to be the elbow which cause the
> problem
> > > from
> > > > > > your
> > > > > > > > error message.
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > Best regards
> > > > > > > > AnyBody Support
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > — In anyscript@yahoogroups.com, Raúl Borraz Lamiel
> > > > > > > > <raulborrazlamiel@> wrote:
> > > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > > Hi Soren,
> > > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > > We have our model very advanced but in the
simulates
> > we
> > > > have
> > > > > a
> > > > > > > > > velocity problem.
> > > > > > > > > We can not simulate real movement velocity, there
is
> > an
> > > > > error
> > > > > > in
> > > > > > > > the
> > > > > > > > > kinematic analysis.
> > > > > > > > > With slow movements there are not problems but
when
> we
> > > add
> > > > > > > > velocity
> > > > > > > > > in the movement it appear the errors.
> > > > > > > > > We import the movement with an animation software
> > > (Poser)
> > > > > and
> > > > > > > the
> > > > > > > > > simulation hat a minute.
> > > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > > The AnyBody message is:
> > > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > > Kinematic Analysis (Operation:
> > > > > Main.Study.KinematicAnalysis):
> > > > > > > > > 0) Design variables have been updated.
> > > > > > > > > 1) Load time positions have been re-established.
> > > > > > > > > Failed to resolve kinematic constraints (final
kin.
> > > error
> > > > =
> > > > > > > > 4.222751E-
> > > > > > > > > 006)
> > > > > > > > > Constraint no. 60 above error tolerance 0.000001,
> > error
> > > =
> > > > > > > > 0.000004. -
> > > > > > > > > constr. #4
> > > > > > > > >
> > > > >
> in ‘Main.Model.HumanModel.Right.ShoulderArm.Jnt.FE.Constraints’
> > > > > > > > > ERROR(OBJ.MCH.KIN3) : D:__AnyBody_LEMUS_Rep6
> > > > > > > > >
> > > > > >
> > >
\ARep\Aalborg\FreePostureMove_INI_POSER\FreePostureMove.Main.any
> > > > > > > > > (90) : ‘Study’ : Kinematic analysis failed in
> > time
> > > > step
> > > > > 0
> > > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > > > Best regards.
> > > > > > > > >
> > > > > > > >
> > > > > > >
> > > > > >
> > > > >
> > > >
> > >
> >
>