Calculation of the Ekin

What is the algorithm in AnyBody to calculate Ekin of the model? Is it public source? (for example an article?)
It’s also interesting for me to find something about the algorithm for calculating Epot for the muscles.
If the source of formulas is public, could you please give links or references for it?
Thank you.

Hello Pavel,

1) Kinetic energy is computed based on general engineering principles: Meriam, J. L. and Kraige, L. G., Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 2, Dynamics, 3. edition John
Wiley & Sons, inc., 1993.
Nikravesh, P. E., Computer-Aided Analysis of Mechanical Systems, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1988.

  1. Description of muscle model in AnyBody is given in the tutorials.:
    Hill, A.: The heat of shortening and the dynamics constants of a muscle. Proc. Roy. Soc. B., 126, 136-195, 1938.

Huxley, A.: Muscle structure and theories of contraction, Progr. Biophys. 7, 255-318.

Zajac, F.E.: Muscle and Tendon: Properties, Models, Scling, and Application to Biomechanics and Motor Control. Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, 17, 359-410, 1989.

Best regards,